Blue Fish Canada – December 19, 2022
What’s New at Blue Fish Canada: Have you heard our new addition to the Blue Fish Radio Show line-up? Starting last week we are now releasing live audio from the Canadian Fishing Network Monday Night Live featuring Blue Fish Canada’s President Lawrence Gunther discussing the latest fish and fishing news with CFN host Scottie Martin. Lawrence is a regular contributor since March 2020 on the weekly CFN program streamed over Facebook and Youtube. Download The Blue Fish Radio Show on any of the podcast streaming services, and if you like this new weekly feature along with our biweekly interviews with people making a difference for fish and fishing, leave us a ranking and 5-stars on Apple Podcast or wherever you listen to your favorite podcasts. It’s through these rankings that others learn about the show.
In the December 19, 2022 issue of the Blue Fish Canada News we start by exploring just what it means to become a steward of nature and the future of fishing, and why this now needs to include being a champion for biodiversity and resilience. As always, we include links and summaries to the latest fishing, fish health, habitat and other news you need to know. Our closing Special Guest Feature chosen to inform and inspire our readers is a curated list of draft research and implementation priorities recently released by the Great Lakes Executive Committee.
This Week’s Feature – Champions for Biodiversity and Resilience
By L. Gunther
I want to share with you my own close call with a severe windstorm that crashed through eastern Ontario on May 21, 2022. I and a friend were minutes away from launching my Ranger boat on the Ottawa River when the storm struck. None of our weather apps predicted the storm despite its incredible size and strength. We learned later that storm tracking computers had never been programmed to recognise this form of fast-moving storm now referred to as a derecho.
The storm hit hard. No fewer than 11 people died in-around Ottawa that day including an angler on the river within a kilometer of where we were about to launch. The loss of human life and the destruction of property was both unprecedented and tragic, as it was when four months later hurricane Fiona would slam into eastern Canada. These storms brought home for me how important it is that we strengthen nature’s resilience in addition to mitigating climate change.
Scientific studies report that the variety of life on the planet, including plants, invertebrates, and ocean species are declining at rates not seen in human history. An intergovernmental scientific panel forecasts that a million species are in danger of extinction. In response, during the biodiversity conference in Montreal, Canada announced it would spend $800 million to develop four new Indigenous protected areas as part of its international commitment to protect 30% of its oceans, land, rivers, and lakes by the year 2030. That’s terrific news, and represents another step towards reconciliation, but what about the other 70% of Canada?
Ten years ago, with the support of a few close friends, I founded the charity Blue Fish Canada to ensure the “future of fish and fishing”. The goal was and remains to this day to inform and inspire people, young and old, to form personal connections to nature through fishing. More importantly, to do so by following science-based sustainable fishing best practices, and by becoming stewards of nature through citizen science.
Looking back, one of the most inspiring guests ever featured on The Blue Fish Radio Show was Alexandra Morton. Her dedication to wild salmon on Canada’s west coast truly exemplifies what it means to advocate on behalf of nature’s biodiversity and the need to ensure it’s resilience. A true Canadian hero! Link below to hear Alexandra Morton in conversation with Editor Lawrence Gunther on The Blue Fish Radio Show: https://www.outdoorcanada.ca/blue-fish-radio-renegade-biologist-alexandra-morton-reflects-on-her-decades-of-fighting-for-wild-salmon/
For over 150 years anglers in North America have been championing conservation measures. The waterkeeper movement itself was founded by three anglers fishing on the Hudson River who witnessed a fish kill, took water samples, and successfully sued the company responsible for releasing noxious chemicals into the river. It made sense therefore, that Blue Fish Canada documents, celebrates and promotes our conservation values, and to implement programs that pass on this tradition to youth as part of their learning to fish experience.
Growing up I spent considerable time at my family’s pond learning how ecosystems function. This included the natural reproduction of the brook trout we introduced into the pond not long after it was formed to take advantage of a year-round natural spring. I witnessed how the trout cope with acid rain, ozone depletion, invasive species, and even my own fishing pressure. The trout demonstrated tremendous resilience, but it was nature that sealed their fate in the end by slowly filling back in that pond through erosion and decomposition. There’s one thing those trout never had to contend with though, and that’s unusual and repeated extreme weather-related threats to their existence and habitat. Weather related events that local outdoor enthusiasts and Indigenous knowledgekeepers alike describe as going far beyond what can be explained as natural phenomena.
Politics and opinions aside, it’s more important than ever that we as anglers continue to be conservation-minded in all we do. This includes documenting what we have through measurements, catch-logs, water quality observations, and the early identification of changes to fish and their habitat. Establishing baseline data is crucial to documenting change so effort and resources can be secured and assigned to mitigate such changes and strengthen resilience. Blue Fish Canada is now championing several habitat enhancement initiatives and long-term fishery studies.
Ensuring Canada’s tremendous biodiversity is resilient is an absolute imperative. Canada has more nature than any other country with our longest coastline, largest contiguous forest, and a stake in the world’s biggest freshwater basin. Strengthening nature’s resilience is essential to sustaining our biodiversity. Given our incredible size and small population, making sure nature is resilient is going to take all of us working together.
The new year will see Blue Fish Canada expand our youth programs at dedicated research and exploration sites geared to supporting long-term fish habitat enhancement and research. Youth will take part in implementing fish conservation measures and a long-term evaluation of the effectiveness of these interventions. Sites include both urban and rural locations in Ontario and Quebec, with plans for expansion into more provinces in the works.
If you are already finding ways to strengthen the health of your favorite watersheds and the ecosystems they support, terrific. If you are still looking for opportunities or want to do more, reach out and Blue Fish Canada will be pleased to include you as a volunteer, or, make a one-time or monthly charitable donation through our secure on-line donation service provided by Canada Helps and receive a tax receipt.
To date, the work of Blue Fish Canada has been paid for with donations from anglers, conservationists, and grants from private foundations. More recently, celebrities like Canadian country music star and outdoor TV host Bret Kissel have stepped up and become long term supporters. We are thankful for the recognition of the work Blue Fish Canada is receiving. However, addressing threats to Canada’s biodiversity and the growing need to strengthen nature’s resilience is essential. Now is the time to support Blue Fish Canada.
All the best to you and yours over the Holidays. Remember, if you ever need a little bit of “me time” and you’ve already blown through your collection of gift cards and spending money, download one of the 65 episodes of “Outdoors with Lawrence Gunther”, or any of the 375 episodes of “The Blue Fish Radio Show” – new episodes of both podcasts drop every two weeks. And remember, if there’s a story that needs telling, reach out and let Blue Fish Canada help make that happen.
Yours in conservation,
The Latest Fishing, Fish Health and Fish Habitat News
COVID-19 reduced recreational fishing effort during the black bass spawning season, resulting in increases in black bass reproductive success and annual recruitment / Fisheries Research
During two non-pandemic years (2019 and 2022) the hook-wounding rates from recreational angling observed among nesting male largemouth bass (LMB), and nesting male smallmouth bass (SMB), were quite high, but typical of those observed in the lake being monitored over the last 20 years. That level of illegal, preseason angling resulted in very low percentages of both LMB and SMB nesting males being successful at raising their broods to independence, rates comparable to those observed for this lake in previous years. In 2020 and 2021, amid the COVID-19 pandemic, however, access to fishing in Ontario was severely limited during the bass spawning season, which serendipitously provided a natural “whole-lake bass spawning sanctuary” to study. Not surprisingly, the hook-wounding rates for nesting male LMB and SMB were the lowest rates ever observed over the last 30 + years. Concomitantly, the percentage of nesting male LMB and SMB that were successful at raising their broods to independence was approximately 3–4 times greater than that in the non-COVID years. Not unexpectedly, those increases in nesting success translated to similar increases in LMB and SMB reproductive success (production of post parental care, independent fry). More importantly, those increases further resulted in large increases in the annual recruitment of both LMB and SMB. This unanticipated COVID-driven experiment revealed that using bass spawning sanctuaries would be more efficient than closed seasons as a management strategy to conserve levels of black bass annual recruitment.
Ottawa aims to reduce size of salmon fishing industry by buying licences / Global
The federal government is offering to buy Pacific salmon commercial fishing licences from those looking to get out of the declining industry as it tries to protect the fish that remain. Fisheries and Oceans Canada has earmarked $123 million for the voluntary retirement program and two future initiatives that will dispose of derelict vessels and allow Indigenous communal commercial licence holders to switch to another species. The funding is part of a nearly $650-million Pacific Salmon Strategy Initiative announced last year. Jeff Grout, a salmon resource manager with Fisheries, says about 1,300 licences are eligible for the program, which will buy them at market rate and take them out of circulation.
Arctic char from Nunavut finds a market in Thunder Bay, Ont. / CBC
Eat the Fish is part of a project called Lake to Plate, and co-owner Paul Drombolis says the partners in the effort include the federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Laval University and Project Nunavut. The Arctic char is caught in a lake nearly 2,000 kilometres north of Thunder Bay. It’s flash frozen on sight, and then shipped south.
Teaching 100,000 youth around the world to fish / IGFA
In 2018, the International Game Fish Association set an ambitious goal of teaching 100,000 youth around the world how to fish ethically. In June 2022, the 100,000th child was taught during our IGFA Day celebrations. Although the initiative is complete, the work will continue around the world to establish future generations of ethical anglers.
Unearthing the Original Mediterranean Diet / Hakai
Archaeologist Dimitra Mylona’s odyssey to reveal the Mediterranean Sea’s lost bounty. When Greek archaeologists applied the same methodology to coastal sites in the Aegean and even in many inland locations, fish bones were uncovered by the hundreds or thousands in nearly every location. Fish were clearly an important part of the ancient Greek diet: a vast underestimation of the importance of the sea as a source of food had taken place.
“Dollar Dog” features in International Fly Fishing Festival / ASF
The story of a four-legged Cape Breton salmon guide is an official selection in the 2023 International Fly Fishing Film Festival. The ASF x Orvis production, produced by filmmaker Tim Myers and ASF’s Nova Scotia program director Dierdre Green tells the story of Ella, a golden retriever mix from Cape Breton who walks alone every day to Dollar Pool on the Margaree River where she watches people fish and points to where salmon are laying. The short documentary features legendary Margaree Guide Robert Chiasson and Ella’s family, telling the story of their remarkable pooch.
Herrings are swimming back to the Salish Sea / Crosscut
The fish almost disappeared from Howe Sound in the mid-1970s. Now, the Squamish Nation and citizen scientists are welcoming them home. The spectacle of herring spawn—adult fish returning to these shores to blanket tens of thousands of eggs with a milky, turquoise cloud of seminal fluid known as milt—is over in a matter of days. Some of the eggs, glommed onto vegetation such as rockweed, will be fertilized, and if the waves that wash across them are gentle and predators stay away, larval fish will emerge. To me, the clear bubble-like eggs the size of millet that Williams searches for seem too minuscule to be of much consequence in Átl’ḵa7tsem. But to Williams and the four other citizen scientists who make up the core herring search team, knowing where these eggs land and flourish enables them to put a finger to the pulse of a waterway that environmentalists once declared dead. The ghosts of resource extraction surround us: two pulp mills that choked the sound with logs and bleaching agents like chlorine dioxide, chemical plants that leached mercury, underwater dump sites from dredged sediment and a beachfront copper mine that was once the biggest source of toxic metals in North America’s waterways.
Concerns feds reversing promise to end B.C. fish farms by 2025 / Narwhal
“They’re not talking about a transition from open-net salmon farms anymore,” says Stan Proboszcz of Watershed Watch. “They’re talking about just producing a plan by 2025, to transition existing open nets into some other open-net form, that may or may not reduce interactions with wild fish.”
Miramichi smallmouth efforts lifted up in New York / ASF
The Atlantic Salmon Federation remains committed to eradicating illegally introduced smallmouth bass from the Miramichi watershed. In September, ASF successfully treated Lake Brook and a portion of the SW Miramichi River to remove these invasive fish. However, ASF was unable to treat Miramichi Lake with a rotenone project as planned. ASF is working on finishing the job in 2023, and at their annual fund-raiser in New York, ASF raised over $400,000 to begin strategizing for next year and to complete the project.
Thousands of salmon return to spawning grounds after channel dug around Coldwater River logjam / CBC
One year after the floods of November 2021 left coho salmon stranded behind a logjam in the Coldwater River, recovery efforts have cleared the way for 2,000 of the fish to swim upstream to their spawning grounds.
Berlin’s giant AquaDom hotel aquarium containing 1,500 fish explodes / BBC
A giant aquarium containing a million litres of water in the lobby of the Radisson Blu in Berlin has burst, flooding the hotel and nearby streets. The “AquaDom” – home to 1,500 fish – is 15.85m high (52 ft) and was described as the largest free-standing cylindrical aquarium in the world.
Endangered salmon are left to flounder as Canada hosts COP15 / National Observer
Ottawa has “abandoned” endangered salmon and steelhead trout despite its biodiversity promises, says Watershed Watch, B.C. Wildlife Federation and the B.C. Federation of Fly Fishers. More than 40 salmon populations have been assessed as endangered or threatened, but only one is legally protected under Canada’s Species at Risk Act.
ASF researchers have big year in Greenland / ASF
The ASF flagship research program, tagging and tracking Atlantic salmon in the North Atlantic, achieved a breakthrough this year in Greenland, where salmon from more than 2,000 rivers in North America and Europe migrate to feed and grow. The ASF crew, working with local fishermen and scientists from Fisheries and Oceans Canada and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association, caught and tagged 215 adult salmon with satellite and acoustic tags. It was the fourth and most successful year of this current five-year program. The satellite tags are tethered to the backs of the fish and programmed to release in early May. They will float to the surface and connect with passing satellites to transmit data on depth, water temperature, and position. The acoustic tags are implanted in the stomach of the salmon and have batteries that can last up to two years. They emit soundwaves that are detected by receivers placed along known migration routes home from Greenland. The data captured identifies the unique fish and when it passed by. This work at Greenland compliments ASF’s long-term research on juvenile and adult salmon leaving their home rivers, detailing for the first time in history the exact route and timing of their homeward migration.
Tacoutche Tesse, the Northwest’s great ghost river — Part 3: saving wild salmon versus the net pen industry / Salish Current
“The dominos are beginning to fall,” according to Stan Proboszcz, senior scientist at B.C.’s Watershed Watch Salmon Society. Alexandra Morton put it even more bluntly: “I think this industry is in its last days.”
Many myths about the N.L. salmon aquaculture industry / SaltWire
“The history of the NL salmon aquaculture industry is a dark one, with many bad decisions made by both DFO and the province to help the industry get established.”
Progress is possible: Cowichan River Reaches Tipping Point! / Salmon Steward Magazine
In 2003, the Cowichan River reached a tipping point. After weeks of drought conditions, salmon had to be trucked upstream to reach their spawning grounds. After reaching a low of 500 Chinook in 2009, over the last four years the average annual return has increased to more than 23,000. The resurgence is due in part to Cowichan Watershed Board’s successful local governance model where collaboration and shared action guides the way, discussed at PSF’s Pacific Action Dialogues as we work First Nation Fisheries Council of B.C. to develop a framework for collaborative action.
‘A cry for help’: Yukon River Chinook salmon take priority in high-level talks on Parliament Hill / Yukon News
Cheyenne Bradley explains how her ancestors relied on Chinook salmon to help them survive in fish camps along the Yukon River. Now she refrains from harvesting that species for the benefit of the fish and the people who rely on it.
There’s Something in the Water / Ohio Sea Grant
Lake Erie is a vital resource to Ohio, supplying drinking water, recreational opportunities and employment to millions of people. The lake is weathering its fair share of problems, from harmful algal blooms to industrial pollution, but it also faces new potential threats to its health. One of those threats is quickly gaining more attention from scientists, and it’s also one that residents can play a large role in addressing: contamination from pharmaceutical products. There’s not a lot of research on the long-term impacts of pharmaceuticals at very low concentrations. Pharmaceutical compounds are treating diseases at pretty high concentrations, but when hundreds of different compounds are all together, we don’t know how they interact with each other. In small animals and invertebrates some impacts even at very low concentrations are observed, where some of the animals might develop tumors or behavior problems.
B.C. vows to reverse ‘short-term thinking’ with pledge to protect 30% of province by 2030 / Narwhal
Advocates say Premier David Eby’s conservation mandate is an ‘important step’ in the fight against biodiversity loss in B.C., which is home to nearly 700 globally imperilled species.
B.C. to add protections for ‘high profile’ endangered species / Narwhal
With plants and animals rapidly disappearing, B.C. and the feds are close to a new agreement to protect nature. But some environmentalists question just how strong protections will be.
Rethinking the Resilience of Salt Marshes / Hakai
The painstakingly slow recovery of an Oregon marsh raises new worries about how delicate these ecosystems can be. The discovery that salt marshes can be so slow to re-establish suggests some may be less resilient than scientists tend to think—a grim finding in a world where sea level rise is threatening to gradually drown coastal marshes around the world.
Wild Salmon Watersheds up and running / ASF
Atlantic Salmon Federation’s new Wild Salmon Watersheds program has advanced from concept to pilot stage. Memorandums of understanding have been signed by ASF and groups in three places; the Nepisiguit River in New Brunswick, the Margaree and Cheticamp rivers in Nova Scotia, and the Terra Nova River on the island of Newfoundland. Working with local partners like the Nepisiguit Salmon Association ASF will help build a long-term plan for conservation action and deliver the money and expertise required to execute. As a facilitator, ASF will connect these local groups at annual conferences where best practices are shared. Learn more or nominate your river for the Wild Salmon Watersheds program by contacting Kris Hunter – firstname.lastname@example.org.
2022 Status of U.S. Marine and Great Lakes Ecosystems Released / National Centers for Environmental Information
The website provides a holistic view of important ecosystem data and has been newly expanded to the Great Lakes in 2022. New indicators such as the number of days an ecosystem experiences a marine heatwave and changes in the distribution of species have also been added. For the first time, the National Marine Ecosystem Status website includes indicators for each of the Great Lakes as well as the Great Lakes Region as a whole. Each lake has distinctive basin features, circulation, and ecology. In total, 13 ecosystem indicators are available for the Great Lakes, including lake ice cover and coastal population. The indicators show that the Great Lakes ecosystems are stable with the exception of increasing intensity of marine heatwaves, frequency of billion-dollar disasters, and value of the coastal tourism sector. The indicators were developed in partnership with the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, and the data used on the website comes from a collection of NOAA, state-level, and international resources.
What Is “Urbanized Knowledge Syndrome”? / Hakai
Survey research suggests people who live in highly built landscapes tend to think more simply about coastal environments. It represents a broad trend “urbanized knowledge syndrome”—a pattern of linear, homogenized thinking about coastal ecosystems that grows worse with increasing urban development. It suggests that as coastal environments become more built up, people lose their appreciation and understanding of the complexity of the natural world.
Trudeau announces $800M for Indigenous-led conservation initiatives / CBC
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has announced $800 million in funding for large Indigenous-led conservation projects covering almost a million square kilometres of land. The prime minister made the announcement in Montréal, which is hosting the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, also known as COP15. The four projects in Ontario, Nunavut, the Northwest Territories and British Columbia that will be funded starting next year are meant to conserve land and protect coastal and inland waterways. Trudeau said the initiative will help Canada reach its target of conserving 25 per cent of Canada’s land and waters by 2025, rising to 30 per cent by 2030. The project is being funded with the help of Project Finance for Permanence, PFP, a funding model that channels contributions from Indigenous communities, all levels of government and the philanthropic community to provide long-term protection for land and water. In the Great Bear Sea on B.C’s coast, the initiative will support a group representing 17 First Nations working to protect the Northern Shelf Bioregion, which includes a number of islands, rocky shorelines and deep fjords. In the Northwest Territories, funding will be directed to a partnership of 30 Indigenous groups working to protect boreal forests, rivers and other lands. The third region being protected is in Qikiqtani, the northernmost region of Nunavut, home to sensitive habitats for marine mammals, birds and fish. In Ontario’s far north, the initiative will fund conservation and protection activities in western James Bay, southern Hudson Bay and the Hudson Bay lowlands.
Michigan, native tribes reach new Great Lakes fishing deal / Vancouver Is Awesome
The tentative deal involves contentious issues for groups wanting shares of a valuable resource as populations of some species — particularly whitefish and salmon — have fallen over the past two decades. A proposed order submitted to a federal judge would extend for 24 years a system overseeing commercial and sport fishing in areas of lakes Michigan, Huron and Superior covered by an 1836 treaty. Those sections of the lakes are entirely within the U.S. and under Michigan’s jurisdiction. The agreement, like its predecessors, sets zones where tribal fishing crews can operate and areas where commercial fishing is off limits. It deals with topics such as catch limits, and which gear tribal operations can use. Particularly controversial is tribes’ use of large-mesh gill nets, an effective tool that hangs in the water column like a wall. Critics say they indiscriminately catch and kill too many fish. The new deal let tribes use the nets in more places, with restrictions on depth in the water they’re placed, the times of year they’re used and how much netting is deployed.
Blue Fish News now Live on The Blue Fish Radio Show!
In addition to our usual biweekly Blue Fish Radio Show special guest features, you can now listen to Blue Fish Canada President Lawrence Gunther discuss all the latest fishing and fish news with Canadian Fishing Network Scottie Martin every week.
Life on the edge: Wildlife and change in the Hudson Bay Lowlands / OMNRF
Access the recording of the seminar featuring Glen Brown presenting on wildlife and change in the Hudson Bay Lowlands. For more detailed information about the content of the presentation, feel free to contact Glen Brown from Ontario’s Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry.
Registration is Now Open for 2023 Invasive Species Forum / ISC
This year’s Invasive Species Forum theme is Invasive Species Action in a Changing Climate. The February 7-9 Forum presents the opportunity to learn from a variety of dedicated sessions including Ecosystem Resilience; Vectors, Pathways, & Threats; Indigenous Communities; and more.
SAVE THE DATE: Great Lakes Day 2023 / Great Lakes Commission
Save the date for Great Lakes Day, including the annual Great Lakes Day Congressional Breakfast Reception, to be hosted by the Great Lakes Commission and Northeast-Midwest Institute on March 9, 2023. The Breakfast Reception includes dialogue on Great Lakes priorities by regional leaders and members of Congress who play a critical role in shaping Great Lakes policies.
Special Guest Feature – Great Lakes Binational Draft Priorities for Science and Action(2023-2025) / Great Lakes Executive Committee
The following are some of the draft priorities being considered for further research and implementation by the binational Great Lakes Executive Committee. Public comments are still being sought:
- Conduct monitoring and surveillance in Great Lakes environmental media to track trends of Chemicals of Mutual Concern and other priority chemicals, enhance these efforts through the Cooperative Science and Monitoring Initiative, communicate results, and implement strategies to reduce Chemicals of Mutual Concern.
- Recognizing that fish consumption is the major Great Lakes route of exposure for bioaccumulative CMCs, U.S. and Canadian jurisdictions will provide fish consumption advisories and raise awareness about the risks to minimize potential impacts to human health, including vulnerable populations.
- Improve our understanding of factors affecting nuisance and harmful algae growth in the Great Lakes, particularly in nearshore areas.
- Improve tracking and reporting on phosphorus loads to Lake Erie and the extent of harmful algal blooms and improve hypoxia assessment methods.
- Develop and evaluate early AIS detection technologies and methods, including eDNA and genetic barcoding, and research and develop technologies and methods for control and eradication of AIS. Prevent introductions of new invasive species into the Great Lakes, including silver carp, bighead carp, and black carp, and other species identified through risk screening and assessment.
- Enhance early detection for invasive carps and for other high-risk aquatic invasive species.
- Conduct response actions to prevent the establishment of grass carp and other high-risk species in the Great Lakes.
- Identify gaps in current AIS policies and regulations and reduce the risk of pathways into and within the Great Lakes basin.
- Assess coastal environments, with a binational focus on coastal wetlands through the U.S. Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program and the Canadian Coastal Baseline Habitat Survey to support protection and restoration efforts and other actions that increase resiliency of native species and their coastal habitat.
- Through existing programs, including Canada’s Nature Fund and the U.S. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, implement actions to protect and restore the resilience of native species and their habitats with a focus on activities that restore and maintain natural hydrology and water quality.
- Produce and share climate information with the Great Lakes community, including regularly issuing the binational Quarterly Climate Impacts and Outlook report and the Annual Climate Trends and Impacts Summary for the Great Lakes Basin.
- Increase understanding and consideration of opportunities to integrate Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) in collaboration with Tribes, First Nations, and Métis, with a focus on updating, as appropriate, the Guidance Document on Traditional Ecological Knowledge Pursuant to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, and explore conducting educational opportunities on TEK.
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